Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) is active in the region and globally supporting the Internet community in a number of ways. APNIC provides financial, technical, and informational support to the Internet community to promote the growth of the Internet, particularly in developing economies where financial and logistical barriers hinder the deployment of Internet services. The APNIC Secretariat continues its efforts to improve the reach and effectiveness of its activities throughout the region through Community Liaison. Outreach activities are directed towards communities in developing economies and allows participation in events that may otherwise be unreachable.
APNIC's Root server deployments
The 13 root nameservers or 'rootserver' each have an identifying letter,
from A-M. However, while only 13 names are used for the root
namesevers, there are many more physical servers. Some exist
in only one instance while others, such as C, F, I, J, K, L,
and M servers all exist in multiple locations on different
continents. These duplicates use anycast address
announcements to provide a completely decentralized service.
Having multiple servers distributed around the world provides high performance DNS lookup independent of the user's location as the request does not have to be dealt with by a single remote instance of the nameserver.
In 2002, APNIC announced a project to assist the community to establish several new rootserver sites into the Asia Pacific region. Those were done initially by installing mirror copies of the F-Root server which is being operated by the ISC (Internet Software Consortium, the non-profit organisation. These copies will be announced into the Internet routing system using the "BGP anycast" technique, which ensures the traffic from any location to the F-Root directed to the nearest server site. APNIC assists in the deployment of these rootservers providing techncial support. Many of the sites are either fully, or at least partially, funded by APNIC. The rootserver deployments are then maintained by the operator, as 'anycast' mirror copies of existing rootservers. In December 2005, F-Root nameservers is installed at Dhaka, Bangladesh at BDIX premises.
Through this project, APNIC is providing root services throughout the region, with substantially improved reachability and response times that will be of noticeable benefit to Asia Pacific ISPs and end-users alike. The new servers are placed in locations to reach the largest possible Internet user base, including diverse IP transit providers, and carrier-neutral Internet exchanges.
Test Traffic Measurement service (TTM)
The Test Traffic Measurement (TTM) service
comprehensively measures key parameters regarding the
connectivity of the host's site to other parts of the
Using dedicated measurement devices consisting of a PC and GPS antenna, the TTM service continuously monitors the connectivity between the host and the rest of the Internet.
The test boxes constantly generate connectivity data,
which can be used for a variety of purposes, such as:
- Monitoring the quality of the connection between the host and the rest of the Internet
- Diagnosing problems that involve other networks
- Revealing long-term trends in external connectivity
- Verification of the performance of the host network or those
of upstream providers
- Identifying current and potential network bottlenecks
Benefits of the TTM service
There is a strong demand for TTM information in the Asia Pacific region, where network connectivity statistics have not been investigated as much as in other regions.
APNIC's sponsorship of 12 TTM nodes will go a long way towards addressing this disparity and provide the necessary data for connectivity providers and decision makers in this region to make the best long-term plans for future network development.
This is especially useful for poorer regions that may be experiencing substandard connectivity to develop the cheapest and most effective plans for improvement, as well as reducing their reliance on foreign assistance.
TTM data can also be used to enhance the efficient and cost-effective use of local Internet resources by reducing the unnecessary flow of network traffic offshore.
This is a significant injection of research capacity to the Asia Pacific, the effects of which will be seen over the next decade and into the future.
- Delay measurements
- Packet loss rates
- Delay variations (jitter)
In addition, the TTM service includes useful features for the local hosts:
- Access to a routing information database
- Notification of unexpected changes in the network via email
or syslog, giving advance warning before customers complain
- Trend analysis of the data, allowing problems to be averted
preemptively and predictions to be made of future demands
for network connectivity
- Access to the raw data for in-depth technical analysis
- The TTM service only generates a very small amount of
network traffic. The service does not interact with existing
network traffic, so there are no privacy concerns.
Unique features of the TTM service:
- Unlike echoing probes such as 'ping', the TTM devices can
analyze asymmetric effects using one-way measurements
- The measurements are performed on the network level, so
there is no computational overhead for the local host
- TTM metrics and methodologies comply with current standards
in RFCs 2330 and 2678 through 2681, published by the IETF IP
Performance Metrics Workgroup
- The TTM test boxes can also be used as reference clocks.
They are stratum-l Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers,
providing time stamps with an accuracy in the order of 10
For more information please visit: www.apnic.net